Upholding Dignity and Justice: Vishaka and Others v. State of Rajasthan (1997)

This article has been written by Mahboob Gaddi Pursuing Penultimate year of LL.B from the Law Centre-II, Faculty of Law, University of Delhi and has been edited by Legal Doxa.


Vishaka and Others v. State of Rajasthan (1997)

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In the fight against sexual harassment, there are pivotal moments in history that set the stage for change. One such landmark case is Vishaka and Others v. State of Rajasthan[1], a judgment delivered by the Supreme Court of India in 1997. This case not only recognized sexual harassment as a violation of fundamental rights but also laid the foundation for the enactment of the Protection of Women from Sexual Harassment Act, 2013[2]. In this blog, we delve into the details of this groundbreaking case, its impact on the legal landscape, and its enduring significance in the fight for gender equality and workplace safety.




Prior to the Vishaka case, sexual harassment at the workplace was a pervasive but largely unaddressed issue. The absence of explicit legislation left women vulnerable to exploitation and discrimination, undermining their dignity and right to work in a safe environment. In response to a horrific incident of sexual harassment in Rajasthan, several women’s organizations filed a public interest litigation (PIL) petition seeking the recognition and enforcement of guidelines against sexual harassment in the workplace.


The Judgment


In the Landmark judgment in Vishaka and Others v. State of Rajasthan, the apex court of India recognized sexual harassment as a violation of the fundamental rights guaranteed under Article 14[3], 19[4], and 21[5] of the Indian Constitution. The court held that every woman has the right to work in an environment free from sexual harassment and that it is the duty of the employer to ensure such an environment.


To fill the legislative vacuum, the court formulated guidelines, commonly known as the Vishaka Guidelines, to be followed until suitable legislation was enacted. These guidelines provided a comprehensive framework for prevention, complaint mechanisms, and redressal of sexual harassment cases in the workplace. Key elements of the Vishaka Guidelines included:


  1. Definition of Sexual Harassment:

    The court defined sexual harassment as any unwelcome act, behavior, or conduct of a sexual nature that violates the dignity of women. It encompassed various forms of harassment, including physical, verbal, and non-verbal acts.


  1. Obligations of the Employer:

    The guidelines placed a duty on employers to prevent and address sexual harassment. They required employers to develop and implement a sexual harassment policy, establish a complaints committee, and conduct awareness programs to sensitize employees about their rights and the consequences of sexual harassment.


  1. Complaints Committee:

    The guidelines mandated the formation of Internal Complaints Committees (ICCs) in every workplace employing ten or more employees. The ICCs were responsible for receiving and investigating complaints of sexual harassment, ensuring a fair and impartial inquiry, and recommending appropriate action.


Impact and Subsequent Developments


The Vishaka judgment had a profound impact on the legal landscape, societal attitudes, and the empowerment of women in the workplace. It established the principle that sexual harassment is not only a violation of individual rights but also a hindrance to gender equality and a barrier to women’s full participation in the workforce.


Following the Vishaka case, the Indian government acknowledged the need for specific legislation to address sexual harassment in the workplace. As a result, the Protection of Women from Sexual Harassment Act (POSH Act) was enacted in 2013, providing a statutory framework for preventing and addressing sexual harassment.


The Vishaka judgment also had a significant international impact. It inspired discussions and influenced the formulation of laws and policies in various countries, leading to a global recognition of the importance of addressing sexual harassment in the workplace.


However, despite the Vishaka judgment and the subsequent enactment of the POSH Act, challenges persist in ensuring effective implementation and widespread awareness. Many organizations are still unaware of their obligations, and victims often face barriers in accessing justice. There is a need for continued efforts to raise awareness, strengthen institutional mechanisms, and foster a culture of zero tolerance towards sexual harassment.




Vishaka and Others v. State of Rajasthan stands as a historic milestone in the fight against sexual harassment in the workplace. This landmark judgment recognized the rights of women to work in a safe environment and laid down guidelines that paved the way for the enactment of the POSH Act. It not only created legal safeguards but also sparked a nationwide dialogue on gender equality, workplace safety, and the empowerment of women.

However, there is still work to be done. The legacy of Vishaka calls for continued advocacy, awareness, and stringent implementation of laws and policies. It serves as a reminder that sexual harassment is not just a legal issue but a social problem that demands collective action to ensure equal rights and dignity for all.


[1] https://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-374-case-analysis-vishaka-and-others-v-s-state-of-rajasthan.html

[2] https://prsindia.org/billtrack/the-protection-of-women-against-sexual-harassment-at-work-place-bill-2010

[3] https://blog.ipleaders.in/article-14/

[4] https://blog.ipleaders.in/article-19-indian-constitution/

[5] https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/right-to-life-article-21/#:~:text=According%20to%20Article%2021%3A,person%2C%20citizens%20and%20foreigners%20alike.

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